Emergency services prepare for TT influx

The world is filled with very cool, well written content. Whenever you find one that catches your eye, you have got to post it, well i do! so with permission of the original author i’ve posted this so that you can enjoy

 

Months of planning and preparation are almost complete as the Island’s emergency services gear-up for a huge influx of visitors and their busiest two weeks of the year.

The Department of Home Affairs says its overriding aim in policing the festival and reacting to emergencies is to ensure a safe and successful TT.

During the fortnight, every police officer and firefighter in the Isle of Man is likely to be called on.

The arrival of tens of thousands of visitors at one time presents many challenges, in particular on the roads which will see a huge increase in traffic.

The roads policing unit is promising ‘strict enforcement’ of its 2014 TT safety campaign, under the slogan ‘For All Our Sakes, Slow Down’.

The Island’s TETRA radio system which is used to coordinate response to accidents, will handle many thousands of calls during the two week practice and race period.

Home affairs minister Juan Watterson says the integrated communications operation – handled under one roof and used by police officers, fire crews, marshals, ambulance staff and race controllers – reduces response time and will ultimately help save lives.

Should I Get a Two-Way Radio System for my Business and, if so, What Type of Two Way Radio is Best??

It depends on what you want to use them for. A lot of two-way radios are designed with specific tasks/uses in mind, so it depends greatly on what you need them to do.

If your application is largely workplace-orientated, then a two-way business radio will likely work best. A good all-rounder, two way business radios (available from any manufacturer), can be used for increasing safety and security levels, relaying messages and services to clients quickly and efficiently, improving employee communication and much more besides.

In addition, modern radio systems are highly customizable, that way they can better suit your business needs. You can tailor them to your workforce, customer-base, or working environment. The following is taken from IcomUK.co.uk,

“Two-way business radio is a very flexible form of communication. It can provide simple one to one communication between a small group of users or increase the number of channels so you could have one channel for everyone, one channel for management, one channel for security, one channel for cleaning and so on. You can use each channel like an intercom system that lets you call individual people or groups instead of broadcasting a message to everyone. Some radios have scanning capability so your radios will only pick up conversation for the channels you have programmed. Dependent on your needs you can build a complex radio system integrating not just radio communication but security monitoring via GPS or CCTV or coverage between groups over a wide geographical area using the internet”.

Two-way radios are also exceptionally easy to use. Training your staff to use them takes almost no time at all and their user-friendliness is a great ‘plus point’ during emergency situations.

Two way radios are also far better suited for business use than mobile phones. This list is also taken from the Icom site.

business 2 way radioWhen you want to call someone on a mobile phone at a minimum you have to press a speed dial button and wait for connection. Between the dialing and the time delay of the person on the other end answering, some time can go by (if they answer at all). With a two-way radio you simply press a button and start talking. In an emergency situation, this speed could be critical.

You can talk to multiple users at once.

2wayradionline.co.uk provides radios with no monthly contract. You never have to worry about exceeding your allotted time like you would do with a mobile phone.

Icom radios are built to military specification which means that they will work in wet environment or even after they are dropped on concrete. Most mobile phone are not built to this standard.

Two way radios continue to work in natural disasters or major security incidents. Even if mobile phones do work, the mobile phone tower can get overloaded with everyone trying to make calls so your call may not go through.

Two way radios stay on site at the end of the day so can be used by shift or night workers.

There may be places in your business where mobile phones don’t work. Two way radios can reach all areas of your business, when repeaters are installed.

Two-way radios that are designed for business purposes are probably your best option (in this instance, at least). Depending on the size and scale of your business, it may be wise to hire a professional to help you set up your network.

 

SOURCES

http://www.icomuk.co.uk/Two_Way_Business_Radio_Buyers_Guide

Should I Get a Two-Way Radio System for my Business and, if so, What Type of Two Way Radio is Best??

It depends on what you want to use them for. A lot of two-way radios are designed with specific tasks/uses in mind, so it depends greatly on what you need them to do.

If your application is largely workplace-orientated, then a two-way business radio will likely work best. A good all-rounder, two way business radios (available from any manufacturer), can be used for increasing safety and security levels, relaying messages and services to clients quickly and efficiently, improving employee communication and much more besides.

In addition, modern radio systems are highly customizable, that way they can better suit your business needs. You can tailor them to your workforce, customer-base, or working environment. The following is taken from IcomUK.co.uk,

“Two-way business radio is a very flexible form of communication. It can provide simple one to one communication between a small group of users or increase the number of channels so you could have one channel for everyone, one channel for management, one channel for security, one channel for cleaning and so on. You can use each channel like an intercom system that lets you call individual people or groups instead of broadcasting a message to everyone. Some radios have scanning capability so your radios will only pick up conversation for the channels you have programmed. Dependent on your needs you can build a complex radio system integrating not just radio communication but security monitoring via GPS or CCTV or coverage between groups over a wide geographical area using the internet”.

Two-way radios are also exceptionally easy to use. Training your staff to use them takes almost no time at all and their user-friendliness is a great ‘plus point’ during emergency situations.

Two way radios are also far better suited for business use than mobile phones. This list is also taken from the Icom site.

business 2 way radioWhen you want to call someone on a mobile phone at a minimum you have to press a speed dial button and wait for connection. Between the dialing and the time delay of the person on the other end answering, some time can go by (if they answer at all). With a two-way radio you simply press a button and start talking. In an emergency situation, this speed could be critical.

You can talk to multiple users at once.

2wayradionline.co.uk provides radios with no monthly contract. You never have to worry about exceeding your allotted time like you would do with a mobile phone.

Icom radios are built to military specification which means that they will work in wet environment or even after they are dropped on concrete. Most mobile phone are not built to this standard.

Two way radios continue to work in natural disasters or major security incidents. Even if mobile phones do work, the mobile phone tower can get overloaded with everyone trying to make calls so your call may not go through.

Two way radios stay on site at the end of the day so can be used by shift or night workers.

There may be places in your business where mobile phones don’t work. Two way radios can reach all areas of your business, when repeaters are installed.

Two-way radios that are designed for business purposes are probably your best option (in this instance, at least). Depending on the size and scale of your business, it may be wise to hire a professional to help you set up your network.

 

SOURCES

http://www.icomuk.co.uk/Two_Way_Business_Radio_Buyers_Guide

Is There a Difference Between a Walkie Talkie and a Two Way Radio

Although the terms ‘walkie-talkie’ and ‘two-way radio’ can be used interchangeably, some minor differences between the two technologies do actually exist. In a professional context, it is best to know which device you are referring to before you refer to it (but this is substantially less important on a day-to-day level).

Essentially, a walkie-talkie is the same as a two-way radio; there is no overt difference between the two. However, because there are so many different radios on the market, a distinction has arisen. The term ‘walkie-talkie’ tends to imply a ‘hobby’ model, or an otherwise cheap radio. Conversely, the term ‘two-way radio’ tends to be more readily accepted in a business, as well as any equipment specific, context. 

Walkie-talkies were invented around the time of the Second World War and were principally used by the military. Although they came in different forms, the most common version featured a large handset, which had a long antenna protruding from it. Modern walkie-talkies, on the other hand, feature a smaller design, typically with a rugged outer casing and a short aerial. They usually operate via a PTT (Push To Talk) button and available models vary in range from cheap children’s toys to professional, military grade equipment.

Generally, walkie-talkies are limited to only a few watts of power and a relatively short signal range. To this end, radio services often use a repeater (a device that increases range and boosts signal by squashing unused frequencies) in order to improve the walkie-talkie’s operation.

For their part, two-way radios, although they are also portable hand-held transceivers (a device that can both TRANSmit and reCEIVE messages) and they also use the PTT system, are slightly different.

A two-way radio is likely to have a stronger range and a harder outer casing. This is because the term ‘two-way radio’ denotes a better class of product (usually). 

Some two-way radios are also capable of sending and receiving messages at the same time; this is called ‘full duplex’. An example would be a mobile phone, which employs two different radio frequencies at the same time. However, although a mobile phone is technically a two-way radio, the device is very different from what we understand as either a walkie-talkie or a two-way.

The most important distinction is that ‘two-way radio’ almost always refers to professional, licensed equipment, whereas ‘walkie-talkie’ more often describes unlicensed, consumer-grade radios. 

CML ntros NXDN radio fast-track processor

Article of the Day………ok so i don’t have an article each day, but if i get an opportunity I will post articles that I find interesting. Fortunate enough here’s one of those articles that I read and had to share. Should you enjoy it as much as me, please add one of those special social media likes, you know the one which tells everyone you loved something, rather then you sat on your arse and watched Television!

CML Microcircuits, a leading innovator and provider of low-power semiconductors for global wireless data and two-way radio communications markets, has released an NXDN processor with embedded Air Interface (AI) Protocol.

The CMX7131/7141 with the NXDN Function Image connects directly to the market-leading CMX994 Direct Conversion Receiver IC. Together, these devices form a formidable chip-set, enabling a fast development cycle for small, highly-integrated, multi-standard capable digital radios that will exhibit a long battery life.

The majority of the NXDN air interface physical layer (layer 1) and data link layer (layer 2) is embedded in the NXDN Function Image, plus a host of advanced features to support the complete radio system and simplify the overall radio design process.

NXDN is an FDMA digital Land Mobile Radio (LMR) open standard and has evolved to become a key narrowband technology in the LMR migration from analogue to digital. NXDN is supported by more than 25 international radio manufacturers and organisations that together form the NXDN Forum.

The new NXDN Function Image adds to the existing suite of CMX7131/7141 function images, now covering dPMR, NXDN, ARIB STD-T98, ARIB STD-T102 and legacy analogue PMR. A radio platform using the CMX7131/7141 can be switched to deliver any of these systems by uploading the appropriate Function Image. This allows radio manufacturers to take advantage of economies-of-scale by adopting a Software Defined Radio (SDR) design route, with one radio design supporting a number of different systems and markets.

The DE9944 FDMA SDR Demonstrator is also available, providing the fastest route from development through to production.

The CMX7131/CMX7141 processors and function images are available now, offering low power 3.3V operation in small VQFN/LQFP packaging.

Source – http://www.ciol.com/ciol/news/212691/cml-ntros-nxdn-radio-fast-track-processor

Can You Recommend The Best Communications For A College?

Your best bet, be it for general use in academic studies, health and safety concerns or simply security, would be to employ a digital two-way radio system, something like the Motorola SL4000. I’m specifically suggesting Motorola because they handle jobs like this all the time, several of which are detailed on their website.

In fact, the Motorola website details a case almost exactly like yours, where this technology was employed to great effect.

According to the site, the Cincinnati State Technical and Community College (CSTCC) was in a situation just like the one you outlined in your email. Here’s the basic issue…

“CSTCC is comprised of three campuses and over 1.3 million square feet. Until recently, the college used an all-analog system, components of which were 15 years old.  According to Raymond Mirizzi, Director of Facilities atCSTCC, “We needed to upgrade our whole communications system,” and it was vital that the entire campus be covered with a radio solution that would support very clear, consistent and secure communications”.

How a two-way radio network helped the situation is also detailed.

“The three-part campus needed a supervisory channel that would provide the flexibility for critical security officers and related personnel to communicate during times of crisis. Of course, because such emergencies can arise at any time, it was also critically important that the migration from analog to digital proceed smoothly and quickly because even brief downtime could put the campus at risk”.

There are lots of companies other than Motorola, of course, but there’s no denying that they are giants in their field, with a long history of customer satisfaction. They are something like The ‘A’ Team in that respect. Still, if your budget doesn’t quite allow for bells and whistles, there are a number of quality independent firms that could do a very good job at a slightly more reasonable rate.

The reality here is that bargains are the exception, not the rule. That’s why we’re always so happy when we get one. By far your best bet is to get an expert to design and implement your faculty’s new communications method. It needn’t be the biggest company, but you want to spend a good amount on communications, as they really do save lives. 

New Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide Helps Users Take Advantage of the Latest Technologies

While many of my visitors are excited about some of my own articles, here’s one i discovered while surfing around blogger that is much better written than I might ever dream to accomplish. Maybe someday I will get to this level, you never know.

All around us, the wireless world is going digital. But organizations have questions about this breakthrough technology. To provide them with answers, BearCom and Motorola Solutions teamed up to create our Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide: “Five Reasons to Migrate to Digital Two-Way Radios.”

“A ‘smart’ revolution is transforming two-way radios,” the guide begins. “Digital technology is opening the door to a host of useful web-based applications for two-way radios, even as it enhances capacity, coverage, audio quality, and battery life.”

Available as a free download from BearCom.com, the guide details how digital two-way radios offer additional functionality, greater efficiency, enhanced coverage, improved audio quality, and extended battery life compared to analog radios. It explores the capabilities and benefits of the latest radios, the differences between analog and digital technologies, and the process for making a smooth transition to digital.

“There are plenty of exciting new digital two-way radio products available,” reads the cover letter from BearCom President & CEO Jerry Denham. “This new Analog-to-Digital Migration Guide is the latest tool we’ve developed to assist organizations around the country as they harness the power of digital performance to improve their communications capabilities.”

The guide includes details on the MOTOTRBO line of digital two-way radios from Motorola Solutions and the new Motorola CP200d, which was made available through BearCom last summer. In developing the CP200d, Motorola Solutions was able to retain the simplicity and durability that have helped make the Motorola CP200 analog model popular across a wide range of industries.

The guide also answers frequently asked questions, such as:
Why should we go digital?
How are apps useful in two-way radios?
Will analog radios become extinct?
Are my analog two-way radio accessories compatible with digital models?
How can I get the best value when selecting digital two-way radios?

– See more at: http://blog.bearcom.com/2014/01/new-analog-to-digital-migration-guide-helps-users-take-advantage-of-the-latest-technologies/#sthash.hoMbIaZV.dpuf

Orwigsburg council approves radio purchase for communications system update

For years people have been telling me that family, love and happiness are the most important things in life…Now I realized that I can take or leave all that as long as We have this Walkie talkie in the world.

The borough council approved the purchase of six radios to use with the recent emergency communications system updates to the police department at a cost of $27,000 at its Wednesday meeting.

Under new federal regulations, the county’s emergency management communications network must be converted to a narrowband frequency to make it more efficient. The county is in the process of complying with Federal Communications Commission-required upgrades to emergency communications.

The borough ordered six Motorola APX6000 radios from Green’s Communications, Pottsville, on Friday. Three radios will be placed in the cars and three are for officers to carry.

The radios could take four weeks to arrive, borough Manager Mike Lonergan said.

In other news, the council also voted to approve a proposal by the Exeter Ambulance Association, Berks County, for two Automated External Defibrillators.

The cost for the AEDs is $4,200. They will replace one for the police department that is at least 10 years old, Lonergan said.

Also at the meeting, Lonergan said he will apply for a $40,000 grant through the state Department of Conservation and Natural Resources for new playground equipment at Community Memorial Hall, mulch and other park maintenance.

The playground equipment that is in good shape, such as the jungle gym, merry-go-round and seesaw, would not need to be replaced. However, the swing set is about 20 years old and could be removed or relocated to another park in the borough, Lonergan said.

The deadline to apply for the grant is Wednesday, and the borough could know by the fall if the grant is awarded. A $20,000 match by the borough would be required and would be paid through by funds designated for recreation use.

In other council action, approval was granted for Lonergan to prepare a final agreement between the borough and Schuylkill County Municipal Authority for the supplemental operation and maintenance services for the borough water and wastewater systems after review by the borough solicitor Frank Tamulonis and an engineer from SCMA.

The cost to the borough for the service is $1,850 per month and would likely start this month. The borough previously gave approval to execute a memorandum of understanding with the authority to provide the aforementioned support.

The council also authorized Tamulonis to advertise an ordinance for declarations of taking or using eminent domain to obtain easements for the safe routes to schools project if necessary. The project would involve curbs and sidewalks from downtown Market Street to Blue Mountain Elementary East along Red Dale Road for a total of about 1,200 feet, Lonergan said.

The borough was awarded a $303,000 grant in 2009 through the Safe Routes to Schools Program through the state Department of Transportation.

“We do not anticipate the ordinance being necessary,” Lonergan said. However, if it is, the borough would compensate property owners.

 

MOTOTRBO™ REMASTER YOUR WORKFORCE WITH THE RIGHT SOLUTION

The Mototrbo 2 way radio has many different uses, but it really works best at communicating two or more people between each other, be it leisure or business, long distance communication can be crucial in many different environments. This promotional information was initially a PDF at the motorola Web site.

HELP TEAMS WORK BETTER AND FASTER, TOGETHER

Your people are on the factory floor, at the front desk, moving across campus or around the country. Hauling freight or handling emergency repairs, MOTOTRBO connects them instantly and efficiently, everywhere they go.

Whether they need ultra-thin portables or extra-tough mobiles, integrated Bluetooth® or industry-leading data applications, we have the right solution to fit your workforce now, and evolve as your enterprise grows.

More than a progressive portfolio, MOTOTRBO is a complete and expertly integrated solution of portable radios, mobile radios, repeaters, data applications, accessories, software and services. MOTOTRBO puts the right solution into the hands of the right user – to make decisions easier, efficiency better, safety greater and productivity higher. And that can transform your enterprise.

BE IN-TOUCH AND UP-TO-THE MINUTE WITH MOTOTRBO APPLICATIONS

Take your business beyond voice and ensure all your people stay connected with the speed and efficiency of data. Whether sending a text message to crews doing road repairs or using the integrated GPS module to manage your taxi fleet, MOTOTRBO makes response time more immediate, customer service more effective and your operation more productive.

With the industry’s largest Application Developer Program, MOTOTRBO supports a wide range of data applications to expand communication beyond voice. Plus, you can work directly with third-party developers or your IT staff to create customised applications for your unique needs.

ENHANCE SAFETY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

GPS location tracking allows efficient tracking of workers, vehicles, and business assets to enhance safety and productivity.

ACCELERATE RESPONSE TIME

Work order ticket management solutions help expedite resolution of customer issues, enhance the efficiency of personnel responding to issues, and generate reports to create efficient work flows.

STAY IN control

Conveniently monitor machine or facility alarms, and remotely control doors with advanced telemetry solutions.

MOBILISE YOUR TEAMS

Effectively manage fleet operations and extend access to radio functions via an IP connection from remote locations.

STAY CONNECTED

Send and receive text messages and emails directly from your MOTOTRBO radio. Enhance worker safety and productivity by integrating with phone systems to make phone calls in places where mobile phone coverage is not available.

CONNECT WITH OTHER DEVICES

Interoperate seamlessly with technologies such as other radio systems, telephony systems and mobile computing devices.

LIFE-SAVING SOLUTIONS

Enhance worker safety with lone worker and man-down emergency alarms. These solutions integrate with location tracking solutions and can emit tones from the radio to allow the radio to call for help when a worker can’t.

Source – http://www.motorolasolutions.com/web/Business/Product%20Lines/MOTOTrbo/_Documents/_Static%20Files/MOTOTRBO_System_Brochure.pdf

Innovative or Simply Post-Modern? New Paradigms in the Study of “Radio”

Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 30 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
Etymology
The etymology of “radio” or “radiotelegraphy” reveals that it was called “wireless telegraphy”, which was shortened to “wireless” in Britain. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission, was first recorded in the word radioconductor, a description provided by the French physicist Édouard Branly in 1897. It is based on the verb to radiate .
The word “radio” also appears in a 1907 article by Lee De Forest. It was adopted by the United States Navy in 1912, to distinguish radio from several other wireless communication technologies, such as the photophone. The term became common by the time of the first commercial broadcasts in the United States in the 1920s. The term was adopted by other languages in Europe and Asia. British Commonwealth countries continued to commonly use the term “wireless” until the mid-20th century, though the magazine of the BBC in the UK has been called Radio Times ever since it was first published in the early 1920s.
In recent years the more general term “wireless” has gained renewed popularity through the rapid growth of short-range computer networking, e.g., Wireless Local Area Network, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, as well as mobile telephony, e.g., GSM and UMTS. Today, the term “radio” specifies the actual type of transceiver device or chip, whereas “wireless” refers to the lack of physical connections; one talks about radio transceivers, but another talks about wireless devices and wireless sensor networks.
Processes
Radio systems used for communications will have the following elements. With more than 100 years of development, each process is implemented by a wide range of methods, specialized for different communications purposes.
Transmitter and modulation
Each system contains a transmitter. This consists of a source of electrical energy, producing alternating current of a desired frequency of oscillation. The transmitter contains a system to modulate some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off, or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or combinations of these properties. The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a tuned resonant antenna; this structure converts the rapidly changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave that can move through free space.
Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to the information being sent. For example, changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker, or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. It
was the method used for the first audio radio transmissions, and remains in use today. “AM” is often used to refer to the mediumwave broadcast band .
Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier’s frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-shift keying.
FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech . Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM.
Angle modulation alters the instantaneous phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal. It is another term for Phase modulation.

Keeping You Safe: Two-Way Radios in High Security

These are troubling times for our nation and indeed for the world at large. Our little corner of the history books will be blighted by a global recession and civil unrest as political opportunists fan the flames of religious and racial tensions. In the midst of all this turbulence, there’s us, the regular people, caught up in the middle of the maelstrom.

In a world fraught with buzzwords like ‘terrorism’ ‘counter-terrorism’ ‘contamination’ ‘organized crime’ and ‘data theft’, its easy to feel like you’re always at risk, only ever one diplomatic blunder or power hungry  Continue reading »

I’m going Skiing in November and I’m looking for a Good Two-Way Radio Set. Any Suggestions?

Lemme get this straight, you live in Spain (where all the nice weather is) and you want to go on holiday to a cold, snowy place? To quote the great French thinker Obelix, “These Romans are crazy!” However, I shall answer your question, but only if you send me a postcard from your trip!

Well, I actually have bad news for you. When I wrote the piece above, I was all set to get online and find you a bargain. However, a little bit of research (together with some applied common sense) tells me that there actually aren’t any radios around (or at least commercially available) that are specifically adapted to skiing (or any mountainous activity, for that matter). Continue reading »

What is Ham Radio & How Does it Work?

Ham radio (so called because its operators were originally derided as being ‘hammy’ in the 19th century, when the technology first emerged) is a term that applies to any form of amateur radio broadcasting.

 

There are designated radio frequency spectra available solely for public use. Uses range from recreation to communication and the non-commercial exchange of ideas. ‘Hams’ take advantage of these frequencies in order to transmit any number of things Continue reading »

Why Can’t I Use a Radio or a Phone on an Aeroplane?

The real reason is that the signals generated by your radio receiver (yes, it generates signals as well as receives them) can interfere with the aeroplane’s navigation equipment.

 

In an article for ‘The Straight Dope’, published in 1987, Cecil Adams (who ran a similar, but far superior, column to this one) explained it far better than I could. He said,

 

“Most modern receivers use something called a “local oscillator,” which is sort of an internal transmitter. The oscillator generates signal A, which is mixed with the somewhat raw incoming signal B to produce nice, easy-to-work-with signal C. There’s usually some sort of shielding around the oscillator, but it’s not always effective and sometimes errant signals leak out to make life difficult for other radio equipment nearby. If the other equipment happens to be an aircraft navigation device, somebody could wind up digging furrows with a $25 million plow. So do your bit for air safety and bring a tape player instead.” Continue reading »

Essential Services, Essential Technology, Radios at Oil & Gas Plants

Oil and gas are natural resources, but obtaining them isn’t as simple as planting a seed in a patch of arable land. Today, hundreds of thousands of miles of oil and gas pipeline run all over the world, sometimes covering some of the most inhospitable environments known to man.

 

Pipelines that run above ground offer many advantages to oil & gas companies. They are cheaper to build, easier to repair, far simpler to maintain and a lot safer for the environment. However, that same environment also has no qualms about wreaking havoc on the lines, neither do politically motivated saboteurs or occasional wanton vandals who commonly make their presence felt in such places. A pipeline is a complex and intricate operation, which means that in order for everything to go right, nothing can be allowed to go wrong. Continue reading »